how might we design a building system flexible enough for future expansion?

issue

The annual increase of numbers in train passengers forces this particular public transport station to expand its size. With existing railway infrastructures, the design should carefully approach the development of the new building as well as its expansions for future uses.

Typically, the design of a train station or most public transport stations comes within the question about circulation issues, particularly about the human movement efficiency. In the case of this project, the question of efficiency is challenged beyond circulation matters because it has already become a mandatory consideration for such typologies. The question of efficiency in this project then is being put towards the specific construction phasing plan of the whole building development.

name
Malang Station
location
Malang
area
41400 sqm
client
PT Kereta Api Indonesia
status
Proposal

figure 1

Existing building photograph.

how might we design a building system flexible enough for future expansion?

project name

Malang Station

location

Malang

area

41400 sqm

client

PT Kereta Api Indonesia

status

Proposal

issue

The annual increase of numbers in train passengers forces this particular public transport station to expand its size. With existing railway infrastructures, the design should carefully approach the development of the new building as well as its expansions for future uses.

Typically, the design of a train station or most public transport stations comes within the question about circulation issues, particularly about the human movement efficiency. In the case of this project, the question of efficiency is challenged beyond circulation matters because it has already become a mandatory consideration for such typologies. The question of efficiency in this project then is being put towards the specific construction phasing plan of the whole building development.

context & background

Located in Klojen sub-district, Malang Kotabaru train station is considered the biggest train station in Malang city. Built in 1941 by the Dutches, the existing train station (fig. 1) is acknowledged as a heritage building considering its physical characteristics of colonial architecture. The design should also carefully approach the idea of designing a new building across the old station building on the east for greater capacity and with respect to the existing heritage.

The programs of the new train station building basically consists of the boarding platforms, the main waiting lounge and ticketing booths, retail, and office spaces. This project is aimed to be developed within 2 phases. The first phase is to build main train station hall, and the second phase would be the expansion of the station hall.

idea

The basic design consideration of this project is to take account of the placement of the main building and supporting activities space which should be arranged to keep the flow of people clear towards the transportation mode and free from obstacles.

1. Programmatic Idea

Based on the design guideline provided (fig. 2), this proposal (fig. 3) came up with the idea of generating generous open spaces throughout the train station.The first idea is to make a sense of spaciousness in the waiting lounge by creating a double height space. The placement of retail zones are centered along within the long-mass of the building to serve either for people from inside or outside the building.

As for the horizontal relationship to the surrounding landscape, the idea was to make a continuous flow of movement also to make small public spaces throughout the building (fig. 4).

2. Modular System

To accommodate the specific phasing plan of this project, the idea was to create a structural module (fig. 5) which in the end will be adaptive to the needs of developing the station in the future. This idea was also inspired by the fact that trains are constructed by a series of modular carriages.

design method

Based on the given design guideline provided by PT. KAI, the first design step is to analyze the functionality aspects of the building. The presence of the main hall and a crossing bridge above the railway and platforms marks the construction phase boundaries (fig. 6) where the whole building will be divided in two unequal parts where one of them has a longer mass than the other because of the expansions. Later these masses will be identified as the Short and Long Retail Lines as it has great effect on the circulation consideration (fig. 7).

1. Circulation

The difference of time spent in the station between people departing and arriving (fig. 8) becomes the main constraint on how the programs should be placed within the building (fig. 9). Retail areas are more likely to be visited by departing people because of the longer process in administrative matters and activities such as waiting for the train arrival itself. Meanwhile, the tendency of people who come will prefer to leave the station immediately, except for those waiting to be picked up.

2. Building Image/Expression

Studying a proper design expression for this building incorporates studying about the developing identity of the company itself through the existing old train stations in Indonesia also the change of the company logo through times. This study shows that most train station buildings in Indonesia don’t have much of a design guideline/rules that ties them together. Thus, making the new train station building to appear more modern makes no less sense.

The modular idea of the building construction is applied firstly by defining the grid dimensions of the modules (fig. 10) The idea of continuous flow of movement and views in this case are applied within the constraints provided by the grids (fig. 11). The expression of the building also represents such continuous flow through the structural arc geometry (fig. 12) and a long-span steel construction (fig. 13) is considered suitable for the situation in accommodating higher capacity of passenger traffic within the building.

result

The modular logic of the design allows the building to be constructed easily by a simple addition of parts every time it needs to expand its capacity (fig. 14).

how might we design a building system flexible enough for future expansion?

project name

Malang Station

location

Malang

area

41400 sqm

client

PT Kereta Api Indonesia

status

Proposal

issue

The annual increase of numbers in train passengers forces this particular public transport station to expand its size. With existing railway infrastructures, the design should carefully approach the development of the new building as well as its expansions for future uses.

Typically, the design of a train station or most public transport stations comes within the question about circulation issues, particularly about the human movement efficiency. In the case of this project, the question of efficiency is challenged beyond circulation matters because it has already become a mandatory consideration for such typologies. The question of efficiency in this project then is being put towards the specific construction phasing plan of the whole building development.

context & background

Located in Klojen sub-district, Malang Kotabaru train station is considered the biggest train station in Malang city. Built in 1941 by the Dutches, the existing train station (fig. 1) is acknowledged as a heritage building considering its physical characteristics of colonial architecture. The design should also carefully approach the idea of designing a new building across the old station building on the east for greater capacity and with respect to the existing heritage.

The programs of the new train station building basically consists of the boarding platforms, the main waiting lounge and ticketing booths, retail, and office spaces. This project is aimed to be developed within 2 phases. The first phase is to build main train station hall, and the second phase would be the expansion of the station hall.

idea

The basic design consideration of this project is to take account of the placement of the main building and supporting activities space which should be arranged to keep the flow of people clear towards the transportation mode and free from obstacles.

1. Programmatic Idea

Based on the design guideline provided (fig. 2), this proposal (fig. 3) came up with the idea of generating generous open spaces throughout the train station.The first idea is to make a sense of spaciousness in the waiting lounge by creating a double height space. The placement of retail zones are centered along within the long-mass of the building to serve either for people from inside or outside the building.

As for the horizontal relationship to the surrounding landscape, the idea was to make a continuous flow of movement also to make small public spaces throughout the building (fig. 4).

2. Modular System

To accommodate the specific phasing plan of this project, the idea was to create a structural module (fig. 5) which in the end will be adaptive to the needs of developing the station in the future. This idea was also inspired by the fact that trains are constructed by a series of modular carriages.

design method

Based on the given design guideline provided by PT. KAI, the first design step is to analyze the functionality aspects of the building. The presence of the main hall and a crossing bridge above the railway and platforms marks the construction phase boundaries (fig. 6) where the whole building will be divided in two unequal parts where one of them has a longer mass than the other because of the expansions. Later these masses will be identified as the Short and Long Retail Lines as it has great effect on the circulation consideration (fig. 7).

1. Circulation

The difference of time spent in the station between people departing and arriving (fig. 8) becomes the main constraint on how the programs should be placed within the building (fig. 9). Retail areas are more likely to be visited by departing people because of the longer process in administrative matters and activities such as waiting for the train arrival itself. Meanwhile, the tendency of people who come will prefer to leave the station immediately, except for those waiting to be picked up.

2. Building Image/Expression

Studying a proper design expression for this building incorporates studying about the developing identity of the company itself through the existing old train stations in Indonesia also the change of the company logo through times. This study shows that most train station buildings in Indonesia don’t have much of a design guideline/rules that ties them together. Thus, making the new train station building to appear more modern makes no less sense.

The modular idea of the building construction is applied firstly by defining the grid dimensions of the modules (fig. 10) The idea of continuous flow of movement and views in this case are applied within the constraints provided by the grids (fig. 11). The expression of the building also represents such continuous flow through the structural arc geometry (fig. 12) and a long-span steel construction (fig. 13) is considered suitable for the situation in accommodating higher capacity of passenger traffic within the building.

result

The modular logic of the design allows the building to be constructed easily by a simple addition of parts every time it needs to expand its capacity (fig. 14).